13 Photos To Remind Us How Amazing The Ocean Is

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Did you know that 71% of the earth is covered by the ocean? Two thirds of which is still undiscovered in terms of wildlife. The ocean does a lot of amazing and essential things for us. Here’s a quick short list:

– Generates most of the oxygen we breathe
– Helps feed us
– Regulates our climate
– Produces oxygen
– Cleans the water we drink
– Offers a pharmacopoeia of potential medicines
– Provides homes for an incredible array of wildlife

If this isn’t enough to convince you how important it is for us to preserve the ocean as much as we can, check out these amazing Instagram photos that will.

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2. @cully_kamisugi – A jelly fish off the coast of Tahiti.

3. @ocean_magazine – “One of the curious sea lions that populates the Galapagos Islands. They are very playful and fun to dive with.”
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4. @daviddoubilet – “I photographed this image of stingrays, sun, sand and cloud a few days ago on #Sandbar on #GrandCaymanIsland. The stingrays gather here to greet thousands of tourists each day. The rays have become ocean ambassadors that welcome and educate people about the sea. Sandbar is an amazing stage with shifting light and soaring stingrays that fly past like flocks of birds.”
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5. @jaypeeswing – A whale makes its way to the surface in Manila, Philippines.
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6. @ocean_magazine – “Taken at Jellyfish Lake – a marine lake located in Eil Malk, which is part of Palau’s famous Rock Islands, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. These jellyfish populated marine basins thousands of years ago through rock fissures and gradually became isolated in an environment devoid of predators. In the absence —> Read More

Cows Are Way More Intelligent Than You Probably Thought

When we think about our most intelligent friends in the animal kingdom, species like orangutans, dolphins, elephants and octopuses are likely to come to mind.

Dairy cows probably don’t make the list. But research, including a new study conducted by an undergraduate student in Australia, suggests these farm animals may be smarter than we give them credit for.

Alexandra Green, a 21-year-old student at the University of Sydney, developed a test that provides evidence of cows’ sophisticated cognitive abilities. Green found that dairy cows could follow sound through a maze in order to find food, suggesting heightened executive function and decision-making abilities.

These capabilities shouldn’t be surprising to us, says zoologist Dr. Daniel Weary, a professor in the Animal Welfare Program at the University of British Columbia.

“These are highly developed mammals that have been solving problems for a long, long time,” he told The Huffington Post. “If anything, it reflects poorly on us that we’re surprised that these animals are smart. Of course these animals are smart.”

Mastering the maze

For the experiment, Green trained six dairy cows to navigate a large T-shaped maze modeled after smaller mazes used on mice and rats. The cows were trained to follow sound through the maze in order to get to their food.

Four out of the six heifers nailed the test, while the other two scored 75 percent. One cow was able to find the food in under 20 seconds on the first day of learning the maze, suggesting intelligence levels can vary widely between animals.

“They would turn their heads to where the sound was,” Green told New Zealand Farmer. “They would really think about it, whereas in the beginning they were making a guess.”

The findings may have some important implications for the cattle industry, Cameron —> Read More

Bad, Bad, Bad Physics

All physics is error prone and then there is bad physics. I deconstruct one of the most controversial antigravity experiments on the internet, so that we as a general population are able to differentiate misinformation from the real thing.

Near field gravity probe experiments measure the value of the gravitational constant G (6.67259×10^-11). They are good examples of error prone physics as they don’t agree with each other. In spite of the notable increase in the precision of these experiments the sample of recent experiments have a mean of 6.6738×10^-11 and standard deviation of 0.0012×10^-11 or the true value of G is somewhere between 6.66899×10^-11 and 6.67619×10^-11.

These experiments are text book examples of precision versus accuracy, i.e. very precise experimental methods that are unable to determine a statistic, with reasonable accuracy. The error appears to be systematic. Something in the background causes these errors but legacy physics is unable to point a finger as to what it is.

OK, so what is bad physics?

Bad physics is the claim that something has been accomplished when not. The University of Sydney YouTube video below is a good example. It claims that Prof. Laithwaite’s Big Wheel experiments have been explained by classical mechanics. This I had to see, as a Boeing engineer I met at a space conference some years ago, agreed that these observations could not be solved using classical mechanics.

Do you really think that Laithwaite, professor of heavy electrical engineering at Imperial College, London, who invented the linear motor and the maglev train technology would have been simple-minded enough not to have investigated gyroscopics?

Do review this video with my comments below:

1. Lacking rigor: The experimenter introduces systematic errors by stepping —> Read More

Here’s What Made T. Rex’s Big, Knife-Like Teeth So Strong

There’s no doubt Tyrannosaurus rex — and other carnivorous dinosaurs — had some terrifying chompers. But what made the teeth of these dinosaurs strong enough to effortlessly tear through the flesh and bone of their prey?

The serrated teeth of T. rex and other fearsome dinos had complex structures hidden inside to strengthen them, according to a study published Tuesday in Scientific Reports.

“The strange structure is actually a special arrangement of tooth tissues that increases the size of the serration, strengthening it and preventing it from wearing away quickly,” Dr. Kirstin Brink, the study’s lead author and a post-doctoral researcher at the University of Toronto-Mississauga in Canada, told The Huffington Post in an email. “The fact that theropod teeth are quite more complex than previously thought was a surprise to me.”

For the study, Brink and her colleagues examined teeth from eight different species of theropod. Theropods — the group of bipedal dinosaurs that includes T. rex, Allosaurus, Coelophysis and Gorgosaurus — roamed the Earth about 200 million years ago and were dominant terrestrial meat-eaters, Reuters reports.

Scientists knew about the strange tissue structures inside theropod teeth before this study, but hadn’t been able to determine if the structures were caused by stress on the teeth, Brink said.

Using a scanning electron microscope to take images of the teeth and a synchrotron microscope to examine their chemical composition, researchers analyzed both immature teeth that were not large enough to be used for feeding and mature teeth.

They found that both immature and mature theropod teeth had the unique tissue structures, which suggests the structures did not develop from stress over time but were a part of the teeth’s biology from the animal’s early development.

“This brought about a developmental explanation for the tooth formation; the serrations are even more spectacular and permanent,” —> Read More

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