New cause of strong earthquakes found

A geologic event known as diking can cause strong earthquakes — with a magnitude between 6 and 7, according to an international research team. Diking can occur all over the world but most often occurs in areas where Earth’s tectonic plates are moving apart, such as Iceland, Hawaii and parts of Africa in the East African Rift System. —> Read More

Horses Can Read Human Facial Expressions, New Study Suggests

Horses are able to distinguish between at least some human facial expressions, suggests a new study by researchers at the U.K.’s University of Sussex.

In the study, published in the February edition of Biology Letters, researchers examined the reactions of 28 horses, from five different stables, to large photos that showed a man either smiling or making an angry expression.

“We found that when we presented the photograph to the horses, they really paid attention and engaged with the facial expression images, partly because this is quite a novel situation for them,” lead researcher Amy Smith told The Huffington Post in an email. “Responses to real-life humans are likely to be more subtle, because they are more accustomed to these interactions.”

When the horses viewed the angry images, their heart rates sped up more quickly, researchers found. Horses were also more likely to turn and look at the angry faces with their left eye — a reaction that the researchers wrote is “generally associated with stimulus perceived as negative.” The theory behind this “left gaze bias” is that the brain’s right hemisphere is specially equipped to help process negative emotions.

“It’s interesting to note that the horses had a strong reaction to the negative expressions but less so to the positive,” Smith said in a news release. “This may be because it is particularly important for animals to recognize threats in their environment. In this context, recognizing angry faces may act as a warning system, allowing horses to anticipate negative human behavior such as rough handling.”

However, the horses were also being shown photos of strangers, and researchers noted in the paper that the animals may have had stronger responses to the happy faces if they were familiar with the people pictured. Dogs, —> Read More

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