Deflated Footballs: Mother Nature Didn’t Do It


Unless you are Rip van Winkle, you are well aware that the footballs in the game in New England were underinflated. There is talk that the weather is to blame. If you run the numbers, the equation looks like this:

To do the calculation, let’s assume that the pressure before the game is 13 psi (P1), that the temperature of the locker room is 70 degrees Fahrenheit (T1), and that the game was played on an unseasonably warm January day at 49 degrees Fahrenheit (T2). Then, the trick is to solve for the pressure of the ball when on the field (P2).

So does this drop in temperature account for the missing two pounds of pressure?

After some mathematical wrangling, the answer is no. This temperature difference between the locker room and the temperature of the field does not account for the change. You get a value of 12.5 psi, which is within the limits for the football pressure of 12.5 and 13.5 psi as set by NFL Rule 2 Section 1. (Note about the math: You can’t just plug in these numbers directly, they need to be converted to Newton/meter2 and Kelvin and then converted back to units —> Read More Here

How Men And Women Process Emotions Differently

male female brain

Are women “wired” to be more emotional? Not exactly — but new research provides more evidence that the male and female brain may have very different ways of processing emotion.

Previous research has shown that women generally experience higher levels of emotional stimulation than men. Now, a new large-scale study from the University of Basel suggests that gender differences in emotion processing are also linked to sex variation in memory and brain activity.

The Basel researchers designed an experiment to determine whether women perform better on memory tests than men because of the way that they process emotional information. The researchers exposed 3,400 test participants to images of emotional content, finding that women rated these images as more emotionally stimulating than men, particularly in the case of negative images. When presented with emotionally neutral imagery, however, the men and women responded similarly.

After being exposed to the images, the participants completed a memory test. The female participants were able to recall significantly more of the images than their male counterparts. The women had a particularly enhanced ability to recall the positive images. The study’s lead author, Dr. Annette Milnik, explained, “This would suggest that gender-dependent differences in emotional processing and —> Read More Here

NASA Releases Stunning Space Photos To Kick Off The ‘International Year Of Light’

The United Nations has declared 2015 the International Year of Light in order to “highlight to the citizens of the world the importance of light and optical technologies in their lives, for their futures, and for the development of society.”

NASA seems more than eager to help with the effort. It’s just released a set of spectacular photos (see below) taken by its Chandra X-Ray Observatory space telescope.

“From a distant galaxy to the relatively nearby debris field of an exploded star, these images demonstrate the myriad ways that information about the universe is communicated to us through light,” the agency said.

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When a massive star exploded in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a
satellite galaxy to the Milky Way, it left behind an expanding shell
of debris called SNR 0519-69.0. Here, multimillion degree gas is seen
in X-rays from Chandra (blue). The outer edge of the explosion (red)
and stars in the field of view are seen in visible light from Hubble.
target=”_hplink”>Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/Rutgers/J.Hughes; Optical:

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This galaxy, nicknamed the “Whirlpool,” is a spiral galaxy,
like our Milky Way, located about 30 million light years from Earth.
This composite image combines data collected at X-ray wavelengths by
Chandra (purple), ultraviolet by —> Read More Here

Seen and not heard: Six months after the World Cup, little has changed for Rio’s Favela footballers

Photo: Breno Washington sleeps on the streets of Rio de Janeiro, but comes to São Martinho's facility in Lapa to eat, wash, and rest during the day.
Breno Washington sleeps on the streets of Rio de Janeiro, but comes to São Martinho’s facility in Lapa to eat, wash, and rest during the day.

In many ways Breno Washington is a typical 15-year-old boy. He has the look of someone whose body grew slightly too quick for him, but he wears it easy anyway, like a pair of good jeans; he likes the Chicago Bulls and sometimes he smokes marijuana with his friends. Unlike most boys his age, however, Breno can never go home. If he does, he says, he will be killed by military police.

We are talking in an empty classroom in Rio de Janeiro’s Lapa neighborhood at the head office of Brazilian NGO São Martinho, which runs various programmes to help street children in the city. Outside, a football match is underway, and whistles and sneaker-squeaks pierce through the walls.

After leaving school in the fifth grade, Breno began sniffing paint thinner. Together with a group of friends, he committed a spate of robberies, until one day about a year ago Breno stole a motorcycle from a neighborhood police officer. “He tried to kill me, so I ran away from the community and started living —> Read More Here

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