Once a possibility appears feasible, scientists seek tools and techniques to realize the possibility. Using the techniques and tools, they craft probable engineering designs. On the basis of the outlined designs and knowledge, they assess the feasibility of designs.

Analysis of designs

The next step involves a thorough analysis of the design to figure out possible issues with suitable solutions. Research instrumentation and laboratory techniques are used in the analytical methods that find their way into designs or industrial practices through intermediate disciplines. Also, new human skills and capabilities needed for new technology are explored.